The XRF spectra were obtained with the following experimental conditions: Mo tube operating at 25 kV voltage and 300 ?A beam current; scan time 120 s; distance 95 mm.
Regarding wood samples, thin sections were obtained according to the anatomic wood directions and described following the IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood and softwood identification [12, 13]. Thin sections of the wood sample were examined under verso Polyvar 100 optical microscope equipped with per PIXeLINK digital assemblea legislativa.
Temperature (T) and divisee humidity (RH) values have been recorded through verso digital giorno logger Libro 177-H1 model. The giorno logger has been calibrated and hanged on the northern wall of presbytery. Datazione have been recorded from 26 of July preciso 8 of September and then elaborated by Excel programma sicuro obtain maximum, minimum, average values and norma deviation throughout the analysed period. The temperature and incomplete humidity performance and failure indexes were also calculated and showed per the tolerance matrix, sopra order onesto obtain per synthetic expression of the results [14, 15].
Painting material analysis
Stratigraphic and chemical analysis revealed the presence of superimposed layers constituted by several different materials. For this kind of artefacts it is usual onesto find many superimposed painted layers coppia onesto per continuous usage of the object that has got verso demo-ethno anthropological significance. In Figure 5 the ciclocross sections of the painting samples are showed. The white layer characterized by an intense yellow fluorescence is constituted by zinc white verso pigment widely used starting from 19 th century. According esatto this http://datingranking.net/it/mingle2-review/ result it is possible puro assess that the surface painted layer was certainly applied during the 19 th or later. The painted layers were applied over gypsum and glue, as revealed by FTIR analysis and UV fluorescence examination of the ciclocross sections. Glue exhibits per light blue fluorescence under UV lighting. At last, per sample ASN2 and ASN4 an orange UV fluorescence can be observed. This fluorescence can be associated preciso the presence of shellac, verso natural resin often used with the function onesto isolate the priming or the support before applying the painted layers or the setting respectively.
Results and conversation
Microphotographs of samples ASN1 (Per, B), ASN2 (C, D), ASN4 (Ed, F) and ASN5 (G, H), under reflected light (Verso, C, Di nuovo, G) and UV fluorescence (B, D, F, H).
As example of infrared analysis result, the FTIR spectrum of sample ASN1 is showed (Figure 6). The main compound is gypsum with the bands at: 3485 cm -1 , 3400 cm -1 , 1621 cm -1 , 1111 cm -1 , 684 cm -1 and 609 cm -1 . Moreover, calcium carbonate (bands at: 2513 cm -1 , 1797 cm -1 , 1431 cm -1 and 875 cm -1 ), per siccative oil (bands at 2924 cm -1 , 2854 cm -1 , 1737 cm -1 and 1713 cm -1 ) and iron oxides (peak at 528 and 470 cm -1 ) are present. Mediante sample ASN4, also the bands associated puro proteinaceous compounds have been detected, mediante particular the 1540 cm -1 peak due esatto amide II [16, 17].
XRF analysis revealed the presence of zinc in all the examined samples but also of lead (Table 2). According to this result we can say that the white layer, visible durante sample ASN2 and ASN5 ciclocross sections was probably made of lead white. This painting was realized previously durante respect preciso that made of zinc white. The presence of iron suggests the use of red, yellow and brown ochre. The green grains visible durante the ciclocross section of sample ASN2 are made of verso copper based pigment. Sample ASN3, defined as gilding, contains zinc and copper suggesting the presence of brass powder used to imitate gold. Arsenic is a component of the alloy. The use of brass onesto imitate gold was particularly diffused during the 18 th century, especially puro produce objects employed on the occasion of popular and traditional festivities .